By Hafizah Baki
GOMBAK, 23 September 2021: The first installation of a book review series for “Dosa-Dosa Akhir Zaman” written by 17 authors from IIUM, Kolej Universiti Islam Perlis and Institut Agama Islam Negeri, Indonesia commenced with commentaries and insights from IIUM’s very own Dr. Raudlotul Firdaus from the Department of Qur’an and Sunnah, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences.
The discussion, organised by IIUM Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah (SHAHS) Mosque centres around the meaning of sin and its parts from different perspective.
Dr. Raudlotul who is also the Deputy Director of the Centre of Islamisation, KIRKHS shares that every single thing that we have done in this world will be judged by Allah SWT in the hereafter.
She further shared, “in surah Al-Zalzalah verses 7-8, Allah SWT said: “So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it. And whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it.”
When we do goodness, Allah SWT forgives the minor sins as long as we avoid all the major sins. Hence, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) encouraged us to recite istighfar 100 times as we are not infallible from doing a sin.”
Scholars defined “sin” as any bad things committed opposite from Allah’s and His Prophet’s (PBUH) orders or breaking the law of Shariah.
In Al-Quran, Allah SWT uses a various words for sin such as Kaba’ir(كبائر), ithm(إثم), fawahisy(فواحش), fisq(فسق), i’syan(عصيان), khati’ah(خاطئة), zanbun(ذنب), huubun(حوب), fasad(فسد).
Dr. Raudlotul said: “How did the ulama find out that there are major and minor sins? The Prophet said: “And those who avoid major sins and vices…” and also in other hadith, “Five times prayer and from a Friday prayer to another Friday prayer eliminate the sins between them, as long as he did not commit a major sin.”
The differentiation of a deed on whether it is a major or minor sin is based on the punishment. Sinners of major sins will be punished by hudud/had or there is a threat of hellfire in the Quran or hadith while usually a minor sin poses no serious threat.
Few examples of major sins are in the hadith where the Prophet (PBUH) said: “Stay away from seven destructive sins. Oh prophet, what are they? Shirk, magic (sihr), killing someone in a way forbidden by Allah SWT except by right, consuming usury, consuming the property of orphans, run away from the war, accusing a good woman of adultery.” Other major sins includes disobeying parents, committing adultery, stealing, drinking alcohol and others.
Dr. Raudlotul said that Imam Al-Ghazali divides sin into three parts.
“The first part is spiritual which is the feeling in the soul or heart. Spiritual sin can occur in four conditions and it is based on human nature. Firstly is the sin of bahimiyah which is animalistic such as greed, high lust to adultery, same-sex relationships, stealing, eating the property of orphans and others.
Secondly is sabu’iyah sins, which is the nature of wild animals, for example, quick-tempered, always jealous, bad words, extravagant. Thirdly, spiritual sin is satanic sin, that is, when man takes on the nature of satan. Examples are wickedness, treachery, hypocrisy, heresy and heresy. Fourthly, sin of rububiyyah, which is when man takes the divine attributes that are obligatory for Allah such as pride, power, arrogance and other attributes that are worthy of Allah alone.”
Meanwhile, she shared that the second part is sin against God and other human beings. The sins of fellow human beings can only be forgiven to those who were wronged so that the sins can be forgiven.
The Prophet (PBUH) said: “Whoever commits an offence against his brother whether in connection with his honour or whatever, he should immediately ask to be made lawful from him today before the day when there are no more dinars and dirhams. At that time, if he has pious deeds, his deeds are taken and handed over to him according to the rate of transgression he has committed. However, if he does not do good deeds, his brother’s guilt will be taken and beaten on him.”
A sin against Allah is when his servant does not perform obligations such as obligatory prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan, performing Hajj. So is the sin of associating partners with God.
The third part, is about major and minor sins.
Furthermore, Dr. Raudlotul shared that sins also have its own nature. First, based on the internal characteristics that human beings will feel angry, upset and the external characteristics of fear if the act is known by others. The Prophet PBUH told his people to cover their shame or sins and not to tell others the sins they have committed because Allah has kept the shame of His servants a secret.
The discussion was conducted online on Zoom platform on 14 September from 9.30a.m until 10.50a.m and will be conducted weekly on Tuesdays.***
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